Tuesday, August 19, 2014

Hacking on Atom Part I: CoffeeScript

Atom is written in CoffeeScript rather than raw JavaScript. As you can imagine, this is contentious with “pure” JavaScript developers. I had a fairly neutral stance on CoffeeScript coming into Atom, but after spending some time exploring its source code, I am starting to think that this is not a good long-term bet for the project.

Why CoffeeScript Makes Sense for Atom

This may sound silly, but perhaps the best thing that CoffeeScript provides is a standard way to declare JavaScript classes and subclasses. Now before you get out your pitchforks, hear me out:

The “right” way to implement classes and inheritance in JavaScript has been of great debate for some time. Almost all options for simulating classes in ES5 are verbose, unnatural, or both. I believe that official class syntax is being introduced in ES6 not because JavaScript wants to be thought of as an object-oriented programming language, but because the desire for developers to project the OO paradigm onto the language today is so strong that it would be irresponsible for the TC39 to ignore their demands. This inference is based on the less aggressive maximally minimal classes proposal that has superseded an earlier, more fully-featured, proposal, as the former states that “[i]t focuses on providing an absolutely minimal class declaration syntax that all interested parties may be able to agree upon.” Hooray for design by committee!

Aside: Rant

The EcmaScript wiki is the most frustrating heap of documentation that I have ever used. Basic questions, such as, “Are Harmony, ES.next, and ES6 the same thing?” are extremely difficult to answer. Most importantly, it is impossible to tell what the current state of ES6 is. For example, with classes, there is a proposal under harmony:classes, but another one at Maximally Minimal Classes. Supposedly the latter supersedes the former. However, the newer one has no mention of static methods, which the former does and both Traceur and JSX support. Perhaps the anti-OO folks on the committee won and the transpilers have yet to be updated to reflect the changes (or do not want to accept the latest proposal)?

In practice, the best information I have found about the latest state of ES6 is at https://github.com/lukehoban/es6features. I stumbled upon that via a post in traceur-compiler-discuss that linked to some conference talk that featured the link to the TC39 member’s README.md on GitHub. (The conference talk also has an explicit list of what to expect in ES7, in particular async/await and type annotations, which is not spelled out on the EcmaScript wiki.) Also, apparently using an entire GitHub repo to post a single web page is a thing now. What a world.

To put things in perspective, I ran a git log --follow on some key files in the src directory of the main Atom repo, and one of the earliest commits I found introducing a .coffee file is from August 24, 2011. Now, let’s consider that date in the context of modern JavaScript transpiler releases:

As you can see, at the time Atom was spinning up, CoffeeScript was the only mature transpiler. If I were starting a large JavaScript project at that time (well, we know I would have used Closure...) and wanted to write in a language whose transpilation could be improved later as JavaScript evolved, then CoffeeScript would have made perfect sense. Many arguments about what the “right JavaScript idiom is” (such as how to declare classes and subclasses) go away because CoffeeScript is more of a “there’s only one way to do it” sort of language.

As I mentioned in my comments on creating a CoffeeScript for Objective-C, I see three primary benefits that a transpiled language like CoffeeScript can provide:

  • Avoids boilerplate that exists in the target language.
  • Subsets the features available in the source language to avoid common pitfalls that occur when those features are used in the target language.
  • Introduces explicit programming constructs in place of unofficial idioms.

Note that if you have ownership of the target language, then you are in a position to fix these things yourself. However, most of us are not, and even those who are may not be that patient, so building a transpiler may be the best option. As such, there is one other potential benefit that I did not mention in my original post, but has certainly been the case for CoffeeScript:

  • Influences what the next version of the target language looks like.

But back to Atom. If you were going to run a large, open source project in JavaScript, you could potentially waste a lot of time trying to get your contributors to write JavaScript in the same way as the core members of the project. With CoffeeScript, there is much less debate.

Another benefit of using CoffeeScript throughout the project is that config files are in CSON rather than JSON. (And if you have been following this blog, you know that the limitations of JSON really irritate me. Go JSON5!) However, CSON addresses many of shortcomings of JSON because it supports comments, trailing commas, unquoted keys, and multiline strings (via triple-quote rather than backslashes). Unfortunately, it also supports all of JavaScript as explained in the README:

“CSON is fantastic for developers writing their own configuration to be executed on their own machines, but bad for configuration you can't trust. This is because parsing CSON will execute the CSON input as CoffeeScript code...”
Uh...what? Apparently there’s a project called cson-safe that is not as freewheeling as the cson npm module, and it looks like Atom uses the safe version. One of the unfortunate realities of the npm ecosystem is that the first mover gets the best package name even if he does not have the best implementation. C’est la vie.

Downsides of Atom Using CoffeeScript

I don’t want to get into a debate about the relative merits of CoffeeScript as a language here (though I will at some other time, I assure you), but I want to discuss two practical problems I have run into that would not exist if Atom were written in JavaScript.

First, many (most?) Node modules that are written in CoffeeScript have only the transpiled version of the code as part of the npm package. That means that when I check out Atom and run npm install, I have all of this JavaScript code under my node_modules directory that has only a vague resemblance to its source. If you are debugging and have source maps set up properly, then this is fine, but it does not play nice with grep and other tools. Although the JavaScript generated from CoffeeScript is fairly readable, it is not exactly how a JavaScript developer would write it by hand, and more importantly, single-line comments are stripped.

Second, because Atom is based on Chrome and Node, JavaScript developers writing for Atom have the benefit of being able to rely on the presence of ES6 features as they are supported in V8. Ordinary web developers do not have this luxury, so it is very satisfying to be able to exploit it! However, as ES6 introduces language improvements, they will not be available in CoffeeScript until CoffeeScript supports them. Moreover, as JavaScript evolves into a better language (by copying features from language like CoffeeScript), web developers will likely prefer “ordinary” JavaScript because it is likely that they will have better tool support. As the gap between JavaScript and CoffeeScript diminishes, the cost of doing something more nonstandard (i.e., using a transpiler) does not outweigh the benefits as much as it once did. Arguably, the biggest threat to CoffeeScript is CoffeeScript itself!

Closing Thoughts

Personally, I plan to develop Atom packages in JavaScript rather than CoffeeScript. I am optimistic about where JavaScript is going (particularly with respect to ES7), so I would prefer to be able to play with the new language features directly today. I don’t know how long my code will live (or how long ES6/ES7 will take), but I find comfort in knowing that I am less likely to have to rewrite my code down the road when JavaScript evolves. Finally, there are some quirks to CoffeeScript that irk me enough to stick with traditional JavaScript, but I’ll save those for another time.

Hacking on Atom Series

I have started to spend some time hacking on Atom, and I wanted to share some of my thoughts and learnings from this exploration. I have not posted on my blog in awhile, and this seems like the right medium to document what I have discovered (i.e., too long for a tweet; not profound enough for an essay; failing to answer in the form of a question suitable for the Atom discussion forum).

In the best case, in places where I have stumbled with Atom’s design or implementation, I hope that either (1) someone sets me straight on best practices and why things work the way they do, or (2) to spur discussion on how to make things better. Hacking on Atom is a lot of fun, but I still have a lot to learn.